Justice Nariman, a Judge of the Supreme Court of India, on the freedom of speech and expression:-
“There are three concepts which are fundamental in understanding the reach of this most basic of human rights. The first is discussion, the second is advocacy, and the third is incitement.
Mere discussion or even advocacy of a particular cause howsoever unpopular is at the heart of Article 19(1)(a). It is only when such discussion or advocacy reaches the level of incitement that Article 19(2) kicks in.”
“Discussion” is “the action or process of talking about something in order to reach a decision or to exchange ideas.” At the same time, “advocacy” means “public support for or recommendation of a particular cause or policy.”
Whereas, “incitement” means “the action of provoking unlawful behaviour or urging someone to behave unlawfully.”
The most basic of the Six Fundamental Freedoms guaranteed by the Indian Constitution beautifully summarised.
Exercise your right to freedom of speech and expression responsibly. It means you are free to discuss, you’re free to promote your cause. But you are not free to provoke people to behave against the law.